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Tribunal de apelaciones de EE.UU dictaminará sobre la suspensión de Trump a las protecciones para inmigrantes

El miércoles, una corte federal de apelaciones probablemente permitió que la Administración Trump pusiera fin a las protecciones humanitarias para inmigrantes de Haití, Sudán, Nicaragua y El Salvador.

Durante una audiencia, un panel de tres jueces del Tribunal de Apelaciones del Noveno Circuito de EE.UU expresó escepticismo ante una orden judicial dictada el año pasado por un juez federal en San Francisco que impedía que la administración levantara las protecciones.

A unos 300.000 inmigrantes de esos cuatro países se les ha permitido vivir y trabajar en Estados Unidos debido a condiciones inseguras en sus países de origen. La mayoría ha vivido en Estados Unidos durante décadas, y muchos tienen hijos que son ciudadanos estadounidenses.

Una vez que se suprima su estado de protección designado, los inmigrantes estarían sujetos a la eliminación después de 120 días.

La Unión Estadounidense de Libertades Civiles del Sur de California y otros grupos de derechos civiles obtuvieron el mandato preliminar después de argumentar que la decisión de la administración se debió a un sesgo racial.

En enero de 2018, mientras se promulgaba la nueva política, el presidente Trump preguntó a los participantes en una reunión de la Oficina Oval por qué Estados Unidos debería aceptar inmigrantes de “países de mierda” de África, América Central y el Caribe, según informaron dos personas sobre la reunión .

"¿Para qué queremos a los haitianos aquí?”, preguntó el presidente, según informó la gente. “¿Por qué queremos a toda esta gente de África aquí? ¿Por qué queremos a todas estas personas de países de mierda?”

El presidente agregó: “Deberíamos tener personas de lugares como Noruega”.

Pero al menos dos de los jueces del Noveno Circuito a los que se les ha pedido que retiren el mandato judicial parecían no encontrar prejuicios raciales.

La jueza Consuelo M. Callahan, nombrada por el presidente George W. Bush, dijo: “Me parece que las pruebas son escasas” en cuanto a evidencia de motivaciones racistas.

El juez Ryan D. Nelson, designado por Trump, dijo que la decisión de terminar con el estatus de protección para los inmigrantes se tomó antes del comentario altamente citado de Trump.

Un abogado de ACLU que representa a los inmigrantes respondió que Trump menospreciaba a las naciones a los pocos días de la promulgación de la nueva política.

ACLU ha argumentado que la nueva política desarrollada por el Departamento de Seguridad Nacional viola la cláusula de igualdad de protección de la Constitución de Estados Unidos.

"¿Hay algún caso que confirmó un argumento de igual protección contra una acción de la agencia?”, preguntó Nelson.

“Siento que se nos pide que caigamos en una trampa aquí", dijo. “¿Con qué frecuencia debemos ser revertidos por la Corte Suprema antes de decir,‘ ¿Saben qué? Estas afirmaciones de igual protección son un poco engañosas”.

El Tribunal de Distrito se basó en amplias declaraciones de Trump para ordenar el mandato preliminar, pero la evidencia muestra que “los funcionarios políticos y de carrera que trabajan duro intentan hacer esto bien”, dijo Nelson.

“No hay una idea de ánimus”, dijo Nelson. “Por el contrario, están tratando de hacer lo correcto aquí y se dan cuenta de que esta es una decisión complicada y que afecta profundamente”.

La juez Morgan Christen, designada por Obama, fue la tercer juez en el panel. Parecía escéptica sobre algunos de los argumentos de ACLU, pero también hizo preguntas que respaldaban su caso.

Un abogado de la administración Trump señaló que la Corte Suprema ha rechazado una demanda por la llamada prohibición de viajar musulmana, que los retadores también dijeron que estaba motivada por ánimus. Christen señaló que muchas de las declaraciones del primer mandatario en cuestión en ese caso se hicieron antes de que él fuera presidente.

Otra demanda dirigida a proteger a los inmigrantes de Nepal y Honduras también está pendiente en el Tribunal de Distrito de San Francisco. El gobierno de Trump acordó posponer la finalización de las protecciones para los inmigrantes de esos dos países hasta que el caso se resuelva en el Noveno Circuito.

“Si ganamos en este caso, beneficiará a los seis países”, dijo Emi Maclean, directora legal de la Red de Organización de Trabajadores del Día Nacional y una de los abogados de la petición, después de la audiencia. Pero “Si lo perdemos, daña los seis casos”.

En una demanda diferente, un juez federal de Nueva York decidió en abril impedir que la administración pusiera fin al estatus de protección para inmigrantes de Haití. Ese caso no se vería afectado por la decisión del Noveno Circuito.

El Congreso creó el programa de protección temporal en 1990 para evitar el traslado de inmigrantes a países que sufren trastornos debido a calamidades naturales o provocadas por el hombre. Se les ha permitido a unos 500.000 inmigrantes vivir y trabajar en EE.UU con estatus de protección desde entonces.

La Administración Trump ha argumentado que muchos de los desastres que permitieron a los inmigrantes permanecer en EE.UU ocurrieron hace mucho tiempo y que esta nación ahora los deporta a los países de la lista.

El panel podría decidir en cualquier momento.

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